Early Life: family background; education; accepted as missionary by Evangelical Lutheran Church Mission Board.
China Experiences: goals as a missionary; lack of preparedness for China and culture shock; brief chronology of work during first term in China; issues raised for the Lutheran missions by the Japanese war; evaluates the indigenous Chinese church; post-WWII feelings toward mission work among Lutherans; ecumenical ventures of the Lutheran United Mission movement; response to American relief efforts; description of summer bicycle trip across China; experience with bandits; evangelization efforts on the Mainland and Taiwan; evaluates Chinese co-workers; problems facing followers of Confucianism who wished to become Christians; general description of missionaries' standard of living relative to Chinese; evaluation of Bible women; receiving news during WWII; information sources on the People's Republic of China (PRC); evaluates U.S. response to China during and after WWII; response to Communists and Nationalists views of the future of mission work in China; lessons learned from China mission field; impact of missionary work on America; memorable missionaries.
Early Life: education; involvement in the Student Volunteer Movement; called by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission.
China Experiences: perceptions of differences between American and Chinese ways of life; political situation in China, late 1920s; eyewitness observations of Sun Yat-sen's funeral journey to station in Fukien; adjustments to living in China; experiences with bandits and anti-foreign sentiment; adjustments to living in America upon return from China; medical problems faced in China; works to save American Board hospital in Fenchow from bankruptcy and failure, 1933; personal philosophy regarding helping people with foreign aid; reactions and experiences during Japanese occupation in China during the 1930s; a philosophy for the relationship between America and China; lessons learned from China experience; efforts to halt American sale of scrap iron to Japan; how became involved in national politics.
Parents' Lives: father born in Sweden, 1870; father's education; general description of father's work after arrival in China,, 1895; description of Taipingtien mission station; father's daily routine; mass baptism of Feng Yu-hsiang's soldiers; father's involvement in the founding of the Lutheran Seminary in Shekow; description of station and father's work in Fancheng; mother's education; general description of mother's work after arrival in China, 1898; mother's response to missionary life.
Early Life: memories of adopted brother; traveling by houseboat during 1911 revolution; memories of Agnes Kittelsby; curriculum of the American School-Kikungshan (ASK); other memories of ASK; higher education.
Return to China: receives call to teach at ASK, 1931; differences between ASK at Kuling and ASK at Kikungshan; evacuation of ASK, 1938; trip to China, 1946; evacuation of ASK to Hankow and then to Hong Kong; general reflections upon work as teacher of ASK.
Early Life: family background; education; called to China by the Augustana Lutheran Synod.
China Experiences: initial impressions of and adjustments to life in China; language study; establishes middle school for girls in Kiahsien, 1915; methods of evangelizing; famine relief efforts; work with Dr. C. P. Friberg in Loyang, 1924; effects of revivalism of 1930s; work toward the indigenous church; problems faced by Chinese converting to Christianity; experiences with Communists after WWII; work with Chinese Muslims; problems teaching Christianity in China; beginning work in Hong Kong.
Early Life: expectations of China as missionary children, 1946; impressions of Shanghai; memories of Sinyang; living at the American School-Kikungshan (ASK) in Sinyang; evacuation of ASK to Hankow, January, 1948; memories of ASK in Hankow; memorable Chinese, Chinese values and attitudes most appreciated.
Beatrice Exner Liu
Early Life: educational background; accepts position at Hopei Women's Normal College, Tientsin as English/French teacher.
China Experiences: Japanese subversive activities in Manchuria/Mongolia area, 1930s; description of trip through Mongolia, 1937; cause of Marco Polo Bridge Incident, 1937; Japanese military activity before and after Incident in Peking area; trip to British Concession in Tientsin for safety; using status as an American to aid Chinese; trip to Nanking to reunite with husband, 1937; experience with American diplomats in Nanking, 1937; trip to Hankow to escape Japanese occupation of Nanking, 1937; meets husband's family, the Lius; trip to Chungking to escape Japanese, 1938; as English teacher at Soviet Embassy in Chungking; response to Soviet diplomats; life in Chungking during Japanese bombing attacks; dealings with Kuomintang secret police; the struggle against rats; memories of Percy Watson; as staff member of the International Relief Committee (IRC); IRC problems obtaining medical supplies and fundings; inflation in Kweiyang, early 1940s; living in Hua Ch'i; work with American Library Association; work with International Refugee Organization (IRO); husband's experience with Communists obtaining exit permit from Shanghai; memory of train trip interrupted.
Early Life: family background; education; Wesley Foundation experiences.
China Experiences: journey to Yangkow, Fukien, as a college student, to teach English at Anglo-Chinese College, 1940-1941; description of living conditions, activities, and school in Yangkow; description of journey to America, 1941; enlists in Air Force in 1942 and spends year in intensive Chinese language study; returns to China as officer in the Office of Strategic Services; experiences on special mission in Fukien; returns to China, as Methodist missionary, to teach at Fukien Christian University (FCU) in Foochow; political unrest among student body of FCU; contacts with foreigners outside mission community; living conditions at FCU; efforts to leave China due to civil war, 1949; memories of Kenneth Scott Latourette; goes to Taiwan as missionary, 1953; beginnings of Methodist church on Taiwan; ecumenical relations in Taiwan; social service projects in Taiwan, including Goodwill Services, and Plummer villages, and a noodle factory; reasons for becoming director of the National Council of Churches' China program; reasons for becoming director of the Midwest China Center; impact of China experiences; memories of missionaries and Chinese Christians.
Early Life: family background; education; accepted as missionary by Methodist Board of Foreign Missions.
China Experiences; trip to China, 1948; assigned to Fukien Christian University in Foochow as English teacher; first impression and description of missionary compound; relationship with household staff; health problems and health care; description of geographical location of university; discussion of language and language training; six-week student strike at university; memories of inflation; extra-curricular activities; trip to and description of the resort at Kuliang; problems faced by missionary parents; the influence of single women missionaries; anti-foreign sentiment; response to order to leave China, 1949; return trip to America.
Father's Early Life: education; early contacts with Christianity; graduates from Nanking Military Academy and is assigned to Northeastern China by Kuomintang, 1937-1945; escape from Mainland China, 1949-1950; experiences in Hong Kong and Malaysia.
Early Life: education and life in Yung, evacuation to Hong Kong, 1949; experiences in Hong Kong and Taiwan; future of Christianity in the People's Republic of China and Hong; influential Christians in narrator's life.
Early Life: family background; parents receive call for China from the Mission Board of the Norwegian Lutheran Church and leave for China, 1902; hardships faced by family during early years in China; example of Chinese response to missionaries in Kioshan; death and memories of father; struggles of her mother after her father's death; experiences with bandits; memories of Agnes Kittelsby; extra-curricular activities and other memories of ASK; contacts with Chinese during time spent at ASK; values gained from childhood experiences in China; memorable people of childhood years; employment in China after graduating from ASK; description of mother's later activities in China; higher education.
Return to China: language school experience after return to China, 1937; memories of Dr. John Sung; wartime experiences in Kioshan; mission work in Junan with brother during wartime; memories of Bible women; the death of a missionary; Agnes Smedley visits Junan; decides to leave Junan and the journey out of China, 1942; returns to China, 1947; political unrest due to Chinese civil war; response to the work of missionaries.
Early Life: education; sent by Friends Service Unit (FSU) to China.
China Experiences: first assignment and adjustments to China; political problems in China; assigned to Friends Ambulance Unit, Medical Team (MT 19); sent to International Peace Hospital, Yenan, Shensi; impressions of the people, geography and working conditions in the Shensi area; builds artificial limbs and teaches public health in Shensi; diplomatic efforts by members of FSU; evaluates personal and FSU's contributions to China.
China Experiences: family background; political instability during childhood education; conversion to Christianity; response to missionaries; interactions with the Communists; admission into seminary in Shekow and response to the educational experience; response to denominationalism; memories of 1946 Annual Conference of the Lutheran Church of China; impressions of organized religion within the People's Republic of China; clashes between traditional Chinese culture and Christianity; experiences as a pastor in Hong Kong.
Early life: family background; education; how Benedictines became involved in China at Fu Jen University, Peking; trip to Peking, 1930.
China Experiences: cultural adjustments to living in Peking; Benedictine sisters establish senior middle school for women; Chinese government requirements for bestowing the title of "university" upon Fu Jen; female students at Fu Jen; Benedictines leave Fu Jen due to financial problems; accepts position in Kaifeng, Honan; description of Benedictines working in Honan; establishment of a dispensary by the Benedictine sisters in Kaifeng; establishment and functions of the ecumenical International Relief Committee, formed 1937; Japanese take Kaifeng; internment in Kaifeng and in the Presbyterian compound at Weihsien; communications between Weihsien and the outside world; religious and other activity in Weihsien; trip to and lifestyle during internment in Peking; returns to Kaifeng at war's end to reclaim Benedictine property, 1945; difficulties resettling at mission; language study in China; memories of the Jewish community Kaifeng; Communist activity in China during the 1930s and 1940s; Benedictines leave China, 1948; work begun in Taiwan.
Lillian Olson Nelson
Early Background: family background; education; accepts call from Augustana Lutheran Women's Missionary Board and trip to China, 1936.
China Experiences: adjustments to life in China; description of station and work as medical doctor at Hsuchang, Honan; living conditions in Kiashien; evangelizing in Kiashien hospital; issues facing missionaries; awareness of Nationalists and Communists; trip out of China; 1941; stranded in Manila and interned by the Japanese, 1942; experiences during internment; liberated, 1945; assessment of Chinese acupuncture; contributions of medical missionaries; memorable personalities from China experience.
Russell E. Nelson
Early Life: education; called by Augustana Lutheran Synod as evangelical worker, 1939; trip to China.
China Experiences: description of teaching method at College of Chinese Studies, Peking; evangelical techniques; experience obtaining visa for interior from Japanese; trip to and station at Yuhsien, Honan; adjustments to life in Yuhsien, Honan; description of Rev. Wu Djen Ming; practices Chinese gave up to become Lutherans; work as an evangelist at countryside outstations and marketplaces; the Honan famine and relief efforts, early 1940s; Yuhsien after Pearl Harbor; leaves Yuhsien due to Japanese advance; journey to West China and to America, 1944; called as Lutheran World Federation (LWF) South China Commissioner to supervise and assist the German missions in China after WWII; the post-war status of the German missions; efforts to prevent repatriation of German missionary doctor; response of Germans and Chinese to narrator; Nazi activity in Canton; Norwegians assume responsibility for German missions; comparison of post-WWI and post-WWII German mission; education of German missionary children; efforts to prevent confiscation of German mission property; efforts to align the German missions with LWF; identification of the need for agricultural missionaries in post-war China; experience with Christian Mission to Buddhists, Hong Kong; resigns LWF position to accept faculty position at Lutheran Seminary in Shekow, 1946; the evacuation of the seminary to Hong Kong, 1948; memories of Daniel Nelson, Jr.; the post-civil war issue of working with Communists; response to Chiang Kai-shek; memories of Peng Fu; perception of missionaries' responses to being forced out of Mainland China; response to the Three-Self Movement; experiences in Hong Kong and Taiwan as missionary; effects of the missionary movement on Christianity in the U.S.
Early Life: education; called by Norwegian Lutheran Church of America to be teacher and principal of I Kwang High School in Sinyang, Honan; journey to China.
China Experiences: initial experiences with Marie Anderson at station in Sinyang; description of language school in Peking; living and working in Peking; brief history of Sinyang; lifestyle in Sinyang; experiences as principal, teacher and bookkeeper; experiences working with thousands of flood refugees; reasons for keeping servants; description of students; bandits raid the mission compound; memories of Marie Anderson; memories of Feng Yu-hsiang's lifestyle; memories of bound feet; evangelizing in Sinyang; sudden deaths in the missionary community; trip to Mongolia, 1922; mission conferences during the summer of 1923; the text of My Experience With Bandits, a pamphlet written by a missionary kidnapped by bandits, 1923; description of winter meeting of executive committee of the mission, 1924; the trip home from China; the role of single women missionaries; relationships among various denominations in Honan; general description of missionaries; comparison of government and mission schools.
Parents in China: education; called by Scandinavian Alliance Mission to work under the China Inland Mission, 1891; travelling conditions in China; living conditions in Kansu Province; missionaries who died during period of civil unrest and evangelistic work.
Early Life: living conditions in Sian; childhood schooling and language development; the mission station in Fancheng; worship and fellowship; father's work in Fancheng; memories of school in Shanghai; memories of the American School-Kikungshan; makes decision for China; called by Covent Mission, 1930;, to serve as doctor; the role of women missionaries.
Return to China: memories of language school in Peking; research work at Peking Union Medical College; situation upon arrival at the Covenant hospital in Siangyang; experiences delivering babies; physical set-up of the hospital; medical conditions and experiences of the hospital and in Siangyang; laboratory work; and ordinary day at the hospital; impressions of political situation in China before 1937; experiences at the hospital during the Japanese war; obtaining supplies during wartime; effects of the destruction of the Yellow River dikes; conditions at the end of the war; trip out of China, 1945; experiences during visit to China, 1980; things gained from missionary experience; memorable Chinese.
Early Life: education; accepted as missionary by Methodist Board of Foreign Missions; training received prior to journey to China.
China Experiences: arrives in Foochow, Fukien, fall, 1924; accepts position as history and English teacher in Foochow senior middle school of the Anglo-Chinese College (ACC); general impressions of civil unrest while at ACC; life as a missionary and mother at the Yenping mission; health care at the mission; reasons family left China, 1938; political unrest among students Fukien Christian University and anti-American sentiment; scene of departure from university, December 1950; future of mission work.
Early Life: family background; education; called by Methodist Board of Missions to teach science at the Anglo-Chinese College (ACC), Fukien.
China Experiences: trip to China; Chinese language studies; Confucian spring sacrifices in Fukien, 1925; student demonstrations in Fukien, 1925; memories of Kuliang; 1926 military disturbances and evacuation to Philippines; Chinese and foreign attitudes toward indigenous institutions; new responsibilities after 1927 disturbances; return to ACC, 1930; response to Laymen Missionary Movement's Fact Finding Commission; people in agricultural studies in Fukien; brief history of missions in Yenping; description of climate and geography of Yenping; native vegetation in Fukien; Chinese farming methods in Fukien; agricultural experiments and other work at Yenping; diary accounts of travel on the Yen River; travels through rural Fukien; general description of responsibilities at Fukien Christian University (FCU) after WWII; describes project involving importation of a herd of Holstein cattle from America; political unrest among students at FCU; inflation in post-war China; FCU under the Communists; decision to leave China after the beginning of the Korean War; the journey out of China; experiences in Sarawak, 1950s.
Early Life: family background; education; accepted as Barry Wall Fellow to participate in Princeton-in-Peking program; brief history and list of accomplishments of Princeton-in-Peking program; trip to Peking.
China Experiences: arrives in Peking, September, 1921; first impressions of Peking; servants and living expenses at Princeton Court; work with and characteristics of Chinese students; social mores in Peking; descriptions of a Chinese wedding and a Chinese funeral; recreation and exploration in and around Peking; trip to and description of Buddhist monastery at T'an Che Ssu, and a description of a Buddhist service at the monastery; economic situation in Peking; Chinese response to Christianity, missionaries, native preachers, YMCA; witnesses battle between Chinese warlords at Changsintien; trip home, 1922.
Iola Aalbue Peterson
Husband (Joseph Aalbue): born September 19, 1908, in St. Paul, Minnesota; education; called by the Evangelical Lutheran Church to be principal of American School-Kikungshan (ASK).
China Experiences: experiences as a student in the Peking Language School; description of efforts of Chinese students to disseminate economic information in the countryside around Peking; experiences as a resident of Peking; hiking on Kikungshan; evacuation of ASK to Hong Kong due to political unrest, 1937; description of Cheungchau Island; brief description of husband's educational philosophy; death of her husband, 1939; the value of China experience.
Early Life: accepts position with YMCA as science teacher at Carleton Christian College (later Lingnan University), 1920.
China Experiences: layout of the college; brief description of science curriculum; the campus mess hall; foreign faculty housing; experience with bandits; delivering secret communications for Sun Yat-sen; the Shaki Massacre, 1925; teaching at the True Light Middle School, 1939-42; interned in Hong Kong and repatriated on the Gripsholm; return to China, 1946; helping to reconstruct True Light in Canton; effects of inflation; Communist takeover in Canton, 1949; initial Communist impact in 1925; effects of Communist takeover on the narrator; leaving China in January, 1951; recent renewal of former China contacts.
Muriel Lockwood Refo
Early Life: impact of Student Volunteers; went to China under the Methodist Board in 1919.
China Experiences: language in Nanking; work with Bible women; death of first husband, Robert Treman; marries Edward Lockwood and becomes part of YMCA with him in Canton; memories of the YMCA in Canton; memories of the cook and Chinese food; brief background and purpose of the True Light Elementary School in Canton; differences between roles of single women and married missionaries; work at the American School in Paak Hok Tung; experience leaving China, 1950; YMCA work in Kukong during Japanese war; recent renewal of contacts.
Early Life: family background; education; accepts position as secretary to Dr. Watts. O. Pye of the American Board, 1925.
China Experience: trip to Fenchow, Shensi; description of Fenchow and of the mission compound; responsibilities and lifestyle in Fenchow; problems with the hospital in Fenchow, effects of the China experience.
Early Life: early interest in China; accepts position with Chinese YWCA, 1917; relationship between American YWCA and Chinese YWCA.
China Experiences: why women were freer to be revolutionaries than men; various social/political programs of the YWCA; the Chinese YWCA method of inviting furloughed American workers back to China; the Chinese emphasis on relationships; defying the Kuomintang and Madame Chiang Kai-shek; trip to and impressions of Yenan during Japanese war; general description of revolutionary atmosphere in Sian and Tai Yuan; examples of YWCA work; living and working in Changsha; old friends met during 1959 trip to People's Republic of China; students' response to working with country people; student activism during May 4th movement in Peking, 1919; things to be learned from China; response to missionaries and to the missionary movement; future Sino-American relations; publisher of Far East Reporter since 1952.
Printing is not supported at the primary Gallery Thumbnail page. Please first navigate to a specific Image before printing.