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Early Life: family background; education; called by Mission Board of the United Norwegian Lutheran Church to serve as a nurse.

China Experiences: memories of Sister Thone Sandland; emotional struggles faced by single women missionaries; description of first year spent at language school in Peking in 1923; experiences at hospitals in Kioshan and Hwangchuan; memorable people at Hwangchuan; Hwangchuan ladies' aid society; evacuatioin due to civil unrest, 1927; experiences as school nurse at American School-Kikungshan (ASK); why ASK moved to Kuling; training nurses and other responsibilities at Union Hospital, Sinyang; the reputation of Dr. Skinsnes in Sinyang; supply problems at Hwangchuan hospital, 1935; effects of Japanese occupation and bombing on city and hospital of Hwangchuan; uncertainties created by the war; journey out of China to America, 1944; work in Fancheng after return to China, 1946.

Publication Date



Midwest China Center


Saint Paul


Mission, United Norwegian Lutheran Church, nurse, Sister Thone Sandland, single women, missionaries, Peking, hospital, Koshan, Hwangchuan, ladies' aid society, evacuation, civil unrest, American School-Kikungshan, ASK, Union Hospital, Sinyang, Dr. Skinsnes, Japanese, war

Midwest China Oral History Interviews