Download Full Text (5.4 MB)


Early Life: education; called by Board of Foreign Missions of the Norwegian Lutheran Church in America; common American perceptions of China at time of departure for China, 1921.

China Experiences: language school in Peking; layout of Kikungshan communnity; description of mission stations visited in 1922; issues facing the Lutheran United Mission (LUM) Conference of 1922; brief biographies of some Chinese leaders associated with LUM; brief history and comments on ecumenical and indigenous church movements; assignment to Kwangshan station; history of and response to extra-territoriality; experiences with bandits; brief description of Sun Yat-sen's rise to power and his principles of government; the most important military leaders of China during the 1920s; differences between American and Chinese cultures; experiences with Feng Yu-hsiang; response to Chiang Kai-shek; participating in an anti-foreign demonstration at Kwangshan, 1925; assigned to be principal of the American School-Kikungshan (ASK); experience with Nationalist troops on Kikungshan, 1927; purpose of Christian-sponsored education; evaluation of missionary work in China, 1807-1927; the International Student Christian Convention in Peking, 1922; insights into the history of Chinese civilization; effects of the mission movement upon Christianity in America; future of missions in China.

Publication Date



Midwest China Center


Saint Paul


Board of Foreign Missions, Norwegian Lutheran Church of America, Peking, Kikungshan, mission, Lutheran United Mission, LUM, ecumenical, indigenous, Kwangshan, extra-territoriality, Sun Yat-sen, military, cultures, Feng Yu-hsiang, Chiang Kai-shek, American School, Natioinalist, Shanghai, missionary, International Student Christian Convention, Christianity

Midwest China Oral History Interviews